Detection of malabsorption of low doses of carbohydrate: Accuracy of various breath H2 criteria

Alessandra Strocchi, Ginoroberto Corazza, Carol J. Ellis, Giovanni Gasbarrini, Michael D. Levitt

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118 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Although the accuracy of breath H2 testing to detect malabsorption of small (<50 g) doses of carbohydrate has never been evaluated, studies suggest that its accuracy is limited by a high prevalence of "H2 nonproducers." The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of H2 breath testing in the detection of malabsorption of 10 g of carbohydrate. Methods: In 55 healthy subjects, we determined the ability of breath H2 measurements to distinguish between the ingestion of 10 g of a nonabsorbable carbohydrate (lactulose) and two control meals, a nonabsorbable electrolyte solution or glucose (10 g). Results: The conventional criterion of a 20 ppm increase in breath H2 had 100% specificity but failed to identify lactulose malabsorption in 47% and 24% of subjects at 4 and 8 hours of testing. In contrast, a breath H2 of >6 ppm at 5 or 6 hours had near perfect specificity and sensitivity. A sum of breath H2 at 5, 6, and 7 hours of >15 ppm yielded perfect separation between lactulose and control solutions. Conclusions: True "H2 nonproducers" are extremely rare. Using appropriate criteria, breath H2 testing provides a very accurate means of identifying malabsorption of low doses of carbohydrate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1404-1410
Number of pages7
JournalGastroenterology
Volume105
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1993

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