Development and validation of a multidimensional measure of stress among African American light smokers

Jennifer R. Warren, Janet L. Thomas, Kolawole S. Okuyemi, Bruce Lindgren, Jasjit S. Ahluwalia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


The complete Multidimensional Measure of Stress (MMOS) measure may be made available to interested persons by contacting the corresponding author. Context: Smoking rates are higher among inner-city and lower-income African Americans, perhaps due to psychosocial barriers to cessation efforts, including stress. Objective: To describe the development of the MMOS and examine the psychometric properties of the MMOS among African American light smokers. Design: Secondary analysis of data generated from a 2x2 randomized clinical trial, designed to examine the efficacy of nicotine replacement and cessation counseling among 755 African American light smokers. Results: Fourteen items were included in the final MMOS (α = 83). An exploratory factor analysis identified 3 factors: interpersonal (α = .80), safety (α = .70), and financial (α = .75). The MMOS was significantly correlated with the Perceived Stress scale (r = 0.49, p < .001) and was associated with several demographic, psychosocial, and tobacco-related variables. Conclusions: The MMOS appears to be a valid measure of stress among African American light smokers enrolled in a cessation trial.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)890-897
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the National Medical Association
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2010

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding/Support: This project was supported by the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health (R01 CA91912), with Dr Ahluwalia as principal investigator. Glaxo-SmithKline provided study medication but played no role in the design, conduct of the study, or interpretation and analysis of the data. Research was conducted at the University of Kansas.

Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • African Americans
  • Stress
  • Tobacco

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