Cryptococcal meningitis persists as a significant source of morbidity and mortality in persons with HIV/AIDS, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite increasing access to antiretrovirals, persons presenting with advanced HIV disease remains common, and Cryptococcus remains the most frequent etiology of adult meningitis. We performed a literature review and herein present the most up-to-date information on the diagnosis and management of cryptococcosis. Recent advances have dramatically improved the accessibility of timely and affordable diagnostics. The optimal initial antifungal management has been newly updated after the completion of a landmark clinical trial. Beyond antifungals, the control of intracranial pressure and mitigation of toxicities remain hallmarks of effective treatment. Cryptococcal meningitis continues to present challenging complications and continued research is needed.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: Skipper is supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (T32AI055433).
- Antifungal therapy
- Cryptococcal meningitis