Dietary fiber may be related to body-weight regulation through plausible physiologic mechanisms that have considerable support in the scientific literature. Many short-term studies suggest that high-fiber foods induce greater satiation and satiety. Epidemiologic studies generally support a role for fiber in body-weight regulation among free-living individuals consuming self-selected diets, although conclusive intervention studies addressing this point are lacking. Thus, there is considerable reason to conclude that fiber-rich diets, containing non-starchy vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes, and nuts, may be effective in the prevention and treatment of obesity in children. Such diets may have additional benefits, independent of changes in adiposity, in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.