Some New World (NW) and Old World (OW) mammalian arenaviruses are emerging, zoonotic viruses that can cause lethal hemorrhagic fever (HF) infections in humans. While these are closely related RNA viruses, the infected hosts appear to mount different types of immune responses against them. Lassa virus (LASV) infection, for example, results in suppressed immune function in progressive disease stage, whereas patients infected with Junín virus (JUNV) develop overt pro-inflammatory cytokine production. These viruses have also evolved different molecular strategies to evade host immune recognition and activation. This paper summarizes current progress in understanding the differential immune responses to pathogenic arenaviruses and how the information can be exploited toward the development of vaccines against them.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The author would like to thank Junjie Shao for editorial assistance and to apologize to colleagues whose works could not be cited in this article due to space constraints. This work was supported in part by NIH grants R01AI093580 and R01AI131586 to Hinh Ly.
© 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- Hemorrhagic fever
- Immune evasion