The coordinated expression of chemokines and receptors may be important in the directed migration of alloreactive T cells during graft-vs-host disease (GVHD). Recent work demonstrated in a murine model that transfer of CCR5-deficient (CCR5-/-) donor cells to nonconditioned haploidentical recipients resulted in reduced donor cell infiltration in liver and lymphoid tissues compared with transfer of CCR5-/- cells. To investigate the function of CCR5 during GVHD in conditioned transplant recipients, we transferred CCR5-/- or wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) T cells to lethally irradiated B6D2 recipients. Unexpectedly, we found an earlier time to onset and a worsening of GVHD using CCR5-/- T cells, which was associated with significant increases in the accumulation of alloreactive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in liver and lung. Conversely, the transfer of CCR5 -/- donor cells to nonirradiated recipients led to reduced infiltration of target organs, confirming previous studies and demonstrating that the role of CCR5 on donor T cells is dependent on conditioning of recipients. Expression of proinflammatory chemokines in target tissues was dependent on conditioning of recipients, such that CXCL10 and CXCL11 were most highly expressed in tissues of irradiated recipients during the first week post-transplant. CCR5-/- T cells were shown to have enhanced migration to CXCL10, and blocking this ligand in vivo improved survival in irradiated receiving recipients receiving CCR5-/- T cells. Our data indicate that the effects of inhibiting CCR5/ligand interaction on donor T cells during GVHD differ depending on conditioning of recipients, a finding with potentially important clinical significance.