Five cases of disseminated histoplasmosis complicating renal transplantation are reported. Nine previously reported cases from the literature are reviewed. In this setting disseminated histoplasmosis usually presents as a nonspecific systemic febrile illness that may be fulminant or more subacute. Five of 14 patients presented with skin lesions; only one patient presented with primary pulmonary symptoms of cough and dyspnea. Three of our patients and three others previously reported on survived the infection and maintained good function in the transplanted kidney despite prolonged therapy with amphotericin B. Immunosuppression was the only predisposing factor that could be identified with certainty in the five patients reported on herein. However, in two of the five patients the onset of disseminated histoplasmosis coincided with a well documented cytomegalovirus infection; the viral infection may have been a factor predisposing to infection in these two cases.