This study presents results of the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on adult egg production, egg hatchability, egg development rates and juvenile growth rates in the freshwater gastropod, Marisa cornuarietis. We observed no adult mortality, substantial inter-snail variability in reproductive output, and no effects of BPA on reproduction during 12 weeks of exposure to 0, 0.1, 1.0, 16, 160 or 640 μg/L BPA. We observed no effects of BPA on egg hatchability or timing of egg hatching. Juveniles showed good growth in the control and all treatments, and there were no significant effects of BPA on this endpoint. Our results do not support previous claims of enhanced reproduction in Marisa cornuarietis in response to exposure to BPA. Statistical power analysis indicated high levels of inter-snail variability in the measured endpoints and highlighted the need for sufficient replication when testing treatment effects on reproduction in M. cornuarietis with adequate power.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We are grateful to Gary Klecka (The Dow Chemical Company), Ellen Mihaich (Consultant to GE Advanced Materials), Charles Staples (Assessment Technologies, Inc.), Steven Hentges (American Plastics Council), and David Thomas (Consultant to PlasticsEurope) for helpful discussions and valuable comments on the manuscript. Financial support was provided by the Bisphenol A Global Industry Group.
This work was funded by the Bisphenol A Global Industry Group. All experiments were conducted in accordance with national and institutional guidelines for the protection of animal welfare.
- Endocrine disruption
- Low-dose effects
- Risk assessment
- Statistical power