The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a highly destructive primary pest of ash (Fraxinus sp., Oleaceae) trees outside of its native range. Ash is an important component of many ecosystems and its loss would be detrimental to both the economy and the environment. The present study aimed to improve our understanding of the effectiveness of green sticky prism traps baited with host kairomone and insect pheromone lures for A. planipennis and to collect data for modelling the range of attraction of the pheromone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide [(3Z)-lactone]. Traps were deployed over a single flight season in urban locations of Ontario, Canada, with low densities of EAB. Traps were placed in pairs of trees separated by not more than 25 m. All traps contained the host kairomone, (3Z)-hexenol, with the remaining half in each pairing additionally baited with (3Z)-lactone pheromone. Both lure types were highly effective in capturing EAB, with >90% detection rates overall. However, traps baited with the lactone pheromone and host volatile lures doubled trap captures of EAB over distances of at least 25 m from the nearest traps baited with only host volatiles. Although the baseline detection rate of traps containing (3Z)-hexenol alone is not significantly reduced compared with traps containing (3Z)-lactone, the overall trap effectiveness is significantly increased when (3Z)-lactone is present. The implications for the use of (3Z)-lactone at 3 mg per septum dose in an early warning trapping system are discussed. Trap layout methods and risk-based analysis models can now be further refined by including these data about the attractive range of lures and their behaviour in different plot environments.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Thanks to Gene Jones of Natural Resources Canada for laboratory support and trap deployment supervision, to Jeff Fidgen for technical advice, to Natural Resources Canada (The Great Lakes Forestry Centre) for provision of equipment and field staff, and to Kevin Rankin and the City of Barrie, Ontario, tree team for arboricultural support and provision of survey sites.
- biological invasions
- emerald ash borer
- forest insect pests
- green sticky prism traps
- insect lure
- invasive species