Early protection events in swine immunized with an experimental live attenuated classical swine fever marker vaccine, FlagT4G

Lauren G. Holinka, Vivian O'Donnell, Guillermo R. Risatti, Paul Azzinaro, Jonathan Arzt, Carolina Stenfeldt, Lauro Velazquez-Salinas, Jolene Carlson, Douglas P. Gladue, Manuel V. Borca

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Prophylactic vaccination using live attenuated classical swine fever (CSF) vaccines has been a very effective method to control the disease in endemic regions and during outbreaks in previously disease-free areas. These vaccines confer effective protection against the disease at early times post-vaccination although the mechanisms mediating the protection are poorly characterized. Here we present the events occurring after the administration of our in-house developed live attenuated marker vaccine, FlagT4Gv. We previously reported that FlagT4Gv intramuscular (IM) administered conferred effective protection against intranasal challenge with virulent CSFV (BICv) as early as 7 days post-vaccination. Here we report that FlagT4Gv is able to induce protection against disease as early as three days post-vaccination. Immunohistochemical testing of tissues from FlagT4Gv-inoculated animals showed that tonsils were colonized by the vaccine virus by day 3 post-inoculation. There was a complete absence of BICv in tonsils of FlagT4Gv-inoculated animals which had been intranasal (IN) challenged with BICv 3 days after FlagT4Gv infection, confirming that FlagT4Gv inoculation confers sterile immunity. Analysis of systemic levels of 19 different cytokines in vaccinated animals demonstrated an increase of IFN-a three days after FlagT4Gv inoculation compared with mock infected controls.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0177433
JournalPloS one
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2017

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