Background: A modification of the Fontan operation was recently applied, which includes anastomoses of the extracardiac conduit to the right pulmonary artery and inferior vena cava using simple clamping with no additional circulatory support, venous shunting, pulmonary artery preparation, or prior maintenance of azygos vein patency. The objective of this study is to assess the outcomes of this novel off-pump "clamp and sew" Fontan procedure. Methods: This is a retrospective review of all patients having a Fontan procedure between January 2009 and October 2010 at a single institution. Results: Twelve patients had a Fontan procedure with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB group), and 12 had an off-pump Fontan procedure (off-pump group). Preoperative demographic and hemodynamic data were similar except for higher mean pulmonary artery pressure in the CPB group (12.2 ± 1.6 mm Hg versus 9.9 ± 2.4 mm Hg; p = 0.02). No patients in the off-pump group required conversion to CPB. The mean inferior vena cava clamp time in the off-pump group patients was 10 ± 3 minutes. There were no early or midterm deaths. No patients exhibited postoperative hepatic or renal dysfunction. Postoperative maximal serum creatinine and aspartate transaminase were significantly lower in the off-pump group compared with the CPB group (0.59 ± 0.12 versus 0.77 ± 0.22 mg/dL; p = 0.03 and 35.5 ± 8.3 versus 53.1 ± 19.0 U/L; p = 0.02, respectively). At median follow-up of 13 months (range, 1 to 20 months), all but 1 patient in the CPB group are in New York Heart Association class I with unobstructed Fontan circulation. Conclusions: The clamp and sew technique for completion of an extracardiac conduit Fontan procedure appears safe and feasible for selected patients.
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