Early Writing Intervention: A Best Evidence Synthesis

Kristen L McMaster, Amy K Kunkel, Jaehyun Shin, Pyung Gang Jung, Erica Lembke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


The purpose of this best evidence synthesis was to identify promising interventions that align with a theoretical model of early writing development, targeting three components of early writing: transcription, text generation, and self-regulation. We determined the extent to which these interventions are effective for children who struggle with early writing skills, by calculating effect sizes for group and single-subject designs, and we examined the overall quality of the research. Twenty-five studies met inclusion criteria. Among group design studies, mean effects (Hedge’s g) ranged from 0.19 to 1.17 for measures of writing quantity and from 0.17 to 0.85 for measures of writing quality. Percentage of all nonoverlapping data for single-subject designs ranged from 83% to 100% for measures of writing quantity. Interventions with the strongest evidence of effects and highest methodological quality are described in detail. Recommendations for research and practice are provided.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)363-380
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of learning disabilities
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 1 2018


  • age
  • elementary
  • written language

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Systematic Review

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