The effect Of nifedipine (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 μg/kg/min); metoprolol (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg), the (β1-selective adrenoceptor partial agonist epanolol (10, 50, and 200 μ.g/kg), or equivalent volumes of isotonic saline (n = 6. in each group), on coronary blood flow capacity were studied in anesthetized swine.Intracoronary bolus injections of adenosine (20 μg/kg/10.2 ml) were administered without and during three levels of coronary stenosis, prior to and following each dose of drug, to obtain maximal coronary blood flows at different perfusion pressures in the autoregulatoryrange. Coronary perfusion pressures were varied by partial inflation of a balloon around the left anterior descending coronary artery. Special care was taken that the stenoses not lead to myocardial ischemia. Three indices of coronary blood flow capacity were used: Absolute coronary flow reserve (ACFR, the ratio of maximal to resting coronary blood flow). the slope and the extrapolated pressure at zero flow (P2f) of the pressure-maximal coronary flow (PMCF) relationship, and relative coronary flow reserve (RCFR, the ratio of maximal coronary blood flow with a stenosis to maximal coronary blood flow without a stenosis) at two of the three levels of stenosis. Nifedipine decreased ACFR from 4.5 + 1.9 to 1.9 + 0.3 (mean ± SD: P < 0.05), reflecting in part the increase in resting coronary blood flow. The nifedipine-induced changes in maximal coronary blood flow were not only due to a drop in perfusion pressure, as the slope of the PMCF relationship decreased from 2.27 + (49 m1/(min.mm Hg) to 1.54 + 0.51 mll(min.mm Hg) (p < 0.05), and P2fdecreased from 30 ± 4 mm Hg to 20 ± 7 mm Hg (p < 0.05). Consequently, calculated maximal coronary blood flow was attenuated from 114 31 ml/min to 93 ± 37 ml/min at 80 mm Hg; but was enhanced from 23 ± 13 to 37 + 24 ml/min at 40 mm Hg coronary perfusion pressure. In concert with the change in the PMCF relationship. RCFR at equivalent severe stenosis increased from 0.33 ± 0.06 to 0.47 ± 0.10 (p < 0.05). No changes were observed with metoprolol, epanolol, or saline. The effect of nifedipine on the PMCF relationship not only provides a mechanism for the drug's anti ischemic action, but should also he considered in the interpretation of coronary flow reserve measurements in patients on nifedipine treatment.
- Coronary flow reserve
- Pressure-maximal coronary flow relationship