Reduction of diet particle size (PS) increases feed efficiency due to an increase in the apparent total tract (ATTD) of GE. However, other effects of PS on the gut secretory function are not known. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to measure the effect of diet composition (DC) and PS on nutrient digestibility, gastrointestinal hormones, total bile acids (TBA), total cholesterol and glucose concentrations in plasma of finishing pigs (n = 8/diet). Pigs were fed finely (374 ± 29 µm) or coarsely (631 ± 35 µm) ground corn-soybean meal (CSB), CSB + 35% corn dried distillers’ grains with solubles (DDGS), and CSB with 21% soybean hulls (SBH) diets for 49 d. Diet composition, nutrient digestibility, along with fasting plasma concentrations of gastrin, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), TBA, cholesterol, and glucose were measured. Fine ground diets had greater (P < 0.05) ATTD of GE as well as greater (P < 0.05) ME than coarse ground diets independent on the DC. Fine ground diets also had greater (P < 0.05) ATTD of DM, N, ether extract, and NDF, independent of DC. A decrease in PS also caused an increase (P < 0.05) in ATTD of N, K, and S, but it did not affect ATTD of Ca, P, or Na. The DC and PS affected plasma gastrin, insulin and TBA but not GIP, GLP-1, glucose, and cholesterol. Gastrin concentration was greater (P < 0.05) in pigs fed coarse DDGS compared with feeding coarse CSB and SBH diets. Insulin concentration of pigs fed CSB was greater (P < 0.01) in pigs fed fine compared with coarse DDGS, and was greater (P < 0.05) in coarse compared with fine SBH diets. Pigs fed DDGS had greater (P < 0.05) TBA than those fed SBH and fine CSB diets. Gastrin, insulin, TBA and cholesterol tended (P < 0.10), or correlated (P < 0.05) with P, K and Fe intake. Insulin, TBA, and cholesterol were correlated (P < 0.05) with Na and S intake. In conclusion, a decrease in diet PS increases the ATTD of nutrients independently of DC, while mineral intake affects gastrointestinal secretion of hormones with potential metabolic impacts. Plasma insulin and glucose concentrations were correlated with DM intake, and glucose was associated with lipid and protein intake. Diet energy, nutrient digestibility, and plasma gastrin, insulin and TBA concentrations were affected by DC and PS.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Financial support: Minnesota Pork Board (Project 00034618), Minnesota Corn Research and Promotion Council, and Agricultural Utilization Research Institute (Project number AIC 212). National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) MIN-16-101.
- Diet composition
- Gut hormones
- Particle size
- Total bile acids