OBJECTIVE - To determine whether nurse case management with a therapeutic algorithm could effectively improve rates of control for hypertension, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia compared with usual care among veterans with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A randomized controlled trial of diabetic patients that had blood pressure (BP) >140/90 mmHg, hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c) >9.0%, or LDL >100 mg/dL. Intervention patients received case management (n = 278) versus usual care (n = 278) over a 1-year period. The primary outcome was the percentage of patients achieving simultaneous control of all three parameters (defined by BP <130/80 mmHg, HbA 1c <8.0%, and LDL <100 mg/dL) at 1 year. Secondary outcomes included improvements within each individual component of the composite primary outcome. Differences between groups were analyzed using t tests, Pearson χ 2 tests, and linear and logistic regression. RESULTS - A greater number of individuals assigned to case management achieved the primary study outcome of having all three outcome measures under control (61 [21.9%] compared with 28 [10.1%] in the usual care group [P<0.01]). In addition, a greater number of individuals assigned to the intervention group achieved the individual treatment goals of HbA 1c <8.0% (73.7 vs. 65.8%, P = 0.04) and BP <130/80 mmHg (45.0 vs. 25.4%, P < 0.01), but not for LDL <100 mg/dL (57.6 vs. 55.4%, P = 0.61), compared with those in the usual care group. CONCLUSIONS - In patients with diabetes, nurse case managers using a treatment algorithm can effectively improve the number of individuals with control of multiple cardiovascular risk factors at 1 year.