This study investigated the growth and survival of three foodborne pathogens (Clostridium perfringens, Campylobacter jejuni, and Listeria monocytogenes) in beef (7% fat) and nutrient broth under different oxygen levels. Samples were tested under anoxic (<0.5%), microoxic (6 to 8%), and oxic (20%) conditions during storage at 7°C for 14 days and at 22°C for 5 days. Two initial inoculum concentrations were used (1 and 2 log CFU per g of beef or per ml of broth). The results show that C. perfringens could grow in beef at 22°C, with an increase of approximately 5 log under anoxic conditions and a 1-log increase under microoxic conditions. However, C. perfringens could not survive in beef held at 7°C under microoxic and oxic storage conditions after 14 days. In an anoxic environment, C. perfringens survived in beef samples held at 7°C, with a 1-log reduction. A cell decline was observed at 2 log under these conditions, with no surviving cells at the 1-log level. However, the results show that C. jejuni under microoxic conditions survived with declining cell numbers. Significant increases in L. monocytogenes (5 to 7 log) were observed in beef held at 22°C for 5 days, with the lowest levels recovered under anoxic conditions. L. monocytogenes in refrigerated storage increased by a factor of 2 to 4 log. It showed the greatest growth under oxic conditions, with significant growth under anoxic conditions. These findings can be used to enhance food safety in vacuum-packed and modified atmosphere-packaged food products.