Dairy ingredients/products utilize a thermal processing step in the production cycle as a means of improving food preservation, product safety and ease of distribution. However, for specific dairy-based materials, thermal treatment can also result in the development of negative product traits due to the simultaneous generation of aroma compounds. For example, ultra-high temperature (UHT) processed milk, although commercially sterile, has a 'cooked' or 'stale' aroma that is often considered a significant product defect. Conversely, thermal processing can also have positive affects on flavored dairy-based due to enhanced flavor stability. Various modes of flavor control in UHT fluid milk are discussed.