Effects of architecture and surface chemistry of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous carbon solid contacts on performance of ion-selective electrodes

Melissa A. Fierke, Chun Ze Lai, Philippe Bühlmann, Andreas Stein

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76 Scopus citations

Abstract

The effects of the architecture and surface chemistry of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) carbon solid contacts on the properties of ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) were examined. Infiltration of the plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane into the pores of the carbon created a large interfacial area between the sensing membrane and the solid contact, as shown by cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) and elemental analysis. This large interfacial area, along with the high capacitance of the 3DOM carbon solid contacts (as determined by cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry, and electrochemical impedance spectros- copy) results in an excellent long-term stability of the potentiometric response, with drifts as low as 11.7 μV/h. The comparison of 3DOM carbon solid contacts with an untemplated carbon solid contact shows that the pore structure is an essential feature for the excellent electrode performance. However, the surface chemistry of the 3DOM carbon cannot be ignored. While there is no evidence for an aqueous layer forming between the sensing membrane and unoxidized 3DOM carbon, electrodes based on oxidized 3DOM carbon exhibit potentiometric responses with the typical hysteresis indicative of a water layer. A comparison of the different techniques to characterize the solid contacts confirms that constant-current charge-discharge experiments offer an intriguing approach to assess the long-term stability of solid-contact ISEs but shows that their results need to be interpreted with care.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)680-688
Number of pages9
JournalAnalytical Chemistry
Volume82
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 15 2010

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