To investigate the solubility and the sites of incorporation of hydrogen in olivine as a function of point defect concentration, two-stage high-temperature annealing experiments have been carried out. The first annealing stage (the dry preannealing stage) was conducted at a total pressure of 0.1 MPa, a temperature of 1300° C and various oxygen fugacities in the range 10-11-10-4 MPa for times > 12 h. In these heat treatments, the samples were buffered against either orthopyroxene or magnesiowustite, or they remained unbuffered. The second annealing stage (the hydrothermal annealing stage) was performed at 300 MPa and 900-1050 ° C under a hydrogen fugacity of ∼ 158 MPa for 1-5 h. Infrared spectra from the annealed samples revealed two distinct groups of bands. Group I bands occurred at wavenumbers in the range 3450-3650 cm-1, while Group II bands occurred in the range 3200-3450 cm-1. The hydrogen solubility associated with Group I bands is proportional to fO2 to the 1/6 power for samples preannealed in contact with orthopyroxene, to the 1/3 power for samples preannealed in contact with magnesiowustite, and to the 1/13 power for samples preannealed in the absence of a solid-state buffer. The hydrogen concentration for Group II bands varies with fo2 to the 1/3 power for opxbuffered samples, to the 1/2 power for mw-buffered samples, and to the 1/3 power for unbuffered samples. The dependence of hydrogen solubility on oxygen fugacity and orthopyroxene activity suggests that hydrogen is incorporated into the olivine structure via association with point defects. The presence of two distinct groups of absorption bands indicates that hydrogen is associated with two distinct lattice defects. The following point defect model for the mechanism of incorporation of hydrogen in olivine is consistent with these results: Hydrogen ions responsible for the Group I bands are associated with doubly charged oxygen interstitials, while hydrogen ions responsible for the Group II bands are associated with singly charged oxygen interstitials. Furthermore, the infrared bands observed in naturally derived olivines are present in spectra from our hydrothermally annealed crystals. Thus, the mechanisms of incorporation of hydrogen in olivine under geological conditions are the same as those operative under laboratory conditions. The maximum solubility reached in these experiments was ∼ 360H/106Si, which corresponds to ∼ 0.002 wt% of H2O. This value is a lower bound for the solubility of hydrogen in olivine under upper mantle conditions.