Depsipeptide FK228 [(E)-(1S,4S,10S,21R)-7[(Z)-ethylideno]-4,21-diisopropyl- 2-oxa-12,13-dithia-5,8,20,23-tetraazabicyclo[8,7,6]-tricos-16-ene-3,6,9, 22-pentanone], a novel histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, previously was reported to be a P-glycoprotein (Pgp) substrate. We now expand the investigation to demonstrate that FK228 is a substrate for Pgp and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1). Transport of FK228 across the Caco-2 cell monolayer in apical to basolateral (AP→BL) and basolateral to apical (BL→AP) directions in the absence and presence of Pgp and MRP inhibitors were investigated. An in vitro uptake study in human red blood cells (RBCs) and a cytotoxicity assay in MRP1(-) HL60 and MRP1(+) HL60Adr cells were conducted to show that FK228 is an MRP1 substrate. An FK228-resistant cell line (HCT15R) was developed from HCT15 colon carcinoma and characterized using a 70-oligomer cDNA microarray, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and HDAC activity assays, and cytotoxicity assays. FK228 showed a nearly unidirectional flux across the Caco-2 cell monolayer, with the BL→AP apparent permeability coefficient (P app) 32 times that of AP→BL without apparent saturation. Pgp inhibition decreased the BL→AP Papp and increased the AP→BL Papp. RBC showed a concentration-dependent uptake and saturable efflux of FK228. HL60Adr cells were 4-fold more resistant to FK228 than HL60 cells, and the resistance was reversed by MRP inhibition. Up-regulation of Pgp, but not changes of MRPs or HAT/HDAC enzymatic activities, was the major mechanism for the acquired FK228 resistance. These studies demonstrate that FK228 is a substrate for Pgp and MRP1, and reversible Pgp up-regulation is predominantly involved in FK228 resistance in vitro.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics|
|State||Published - Apr 2005|