Elastic moduli, yield stress and ultimate compressive stress were determined for cancellous bone from the femoral head and neck regions of the canine femur. Unconfined compression tests were performed on 5 mm cubic samples which were cut from two femurs. Elastic moduli were measured in three orthogonal directions, and the yield stress and ultimate stress were measured along the proximal-distal axis. The results from this investigation support previous assumptions that the mechanical behavior of canine cancellous bone is qualitatively similar to human cancellous bone. The canine cancellous bone was observed to be anisotropic in elastic modulus. For two thirds of the cubic specimens tested, the elastic modulus was largest in the load-bearing, proximal-distal direction. A linear relationship between yield stress and elastic modulus was observed for canine bone, as is typical of human bone. A similar linear relationship between ultimate stress and elastic modulus was observed. Thus, for canine bone as well as for human bone, failure appears to be governed by a strain level which is position independent. The yield strain of 0.0259 and ultimate strain of 0.0288 for canine bone were both less than the yield strain of 0.0395 reported for human bone.