We have previously reported that electroconvulsive seizures (ECS) increases the level of prepro-TRH-derived peptides in hippocampus, amygdala and pyriform cortex but not the striatum of male rats and that this increase is significantly correlated with reduced immobility (increased swimming) in the Porsolt forced swim test. An abstract by Mabrouk and Bennett published in 1993 described increased locomotor activity in rats following IP injection of TRH (pGlu-His-Pro-NH2) and EEP (pGlu-Glu-Pro-NH2). We have examined the effect of three daily transcomeal ECS on the levels of EEP in various brain regions and their correlation with results from the Porsolt forced swim test. The EEP level (ng/g wet weight) was measured by RIA in 6 brain regions: amygdala (AY), hippocampus (HC), pyriform cortex (PYR), anterior cortex (AC), striatum (STR) and motor cortex (MC). ECS significantly increased EEP levels in AY, HC and PYR. The increased swim behavior following ECS, as measured in the Porsolt test, correlated significantly with the EEP levels in HC and MC within individual subjects. Intraperitoneal (IP) injection of EEP (1.0 mg/kg) resulted in a rapid and sustained rise in EEP levels throughout the brain and a clearance half-time from blood of 2.0 h. Intracardiac injection of 0.5 mg EEP resulted in a peak EEP level in CSF at 2 h followed by a t(1/2) of 0.35 h. A 3 compartment model for EEP transport from blood into CSF and then brain was developed. This model revealed a 1.75 h delay in the transit time of EEP from blood to CSF followed by rapid clearance from the CSF but long retention time within various brain tissues. We conclude that (1) ECS significantly increases EEP levels in limbic regions, but not in striatum, of the rat brain, (2) EEP, like TRH, is a potential mediator of the antidepressant effect of ECS and (3) EEP, after IP or IV administration, is readily taken up by, and has a long residence time in, brain tissue.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Research Service of the US Department of Veterans Affairs.
Copyright 2015 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- Affective disorders
- Blood-brain barrier
- Electroconvulsive seizures
- Forced swim test
- Rat brain