Sudden jets of collimated plasma arise from many locations on the Sun, including active regions. The magnetic field along which a jet emerges is often open to interplanetary space, offering a clear "escape route" for any flare-accelerated electrons, making jets lucrative targets for studying particle acceleration and the solar sources of transient heliospheric events. Bremsstrahlung hard X-rays (HXRs) could, in principle, trace the accelerated electrons that escape along the paths of the jets, but measurements of the escaping electron beams are customarily difficult due to the low densities of the corona. In this work, we augment HXR observations with gyrosynchrotron emission observed in microwaves, as well as extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission and modeling to investigate flare-accelerated electrons in a coronal jet. HXR and microwave data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and the Owens Valley Solar Array (OVSA), respectively, give complementary insight into electron spectra and locations, including the presence of accelerated electrons in the jet itself. High-time-resolution HXR data from the Konus-Wind instrument suggest electron acceleration timescales on the order of 1 s or shorter. We model the energetic electron distributions in the GX Simulator framework using the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI), the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE), RHESSI, and OVSA data as constraints. The result is a modeled distribution, informed and constrained by measurements, of accelerated electrons as they escape the Sun. Combining the detection of microwave gyrosynchrotron emission from an open, rather than closed, magnetic configuration, with realistic 3D modeling constrained by magnetograms, EUV, and X-ray emission, we obtain the most stringent constraints to date on the accelerated electrons within a solar jet.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported in part by NSF grants AST-1615807 and AGS-1817277, NASA grants NNX16AL67G, 80NSSC18K0015, and 80NSSC18K0667 to the New Jersey Institute of Technology, and by an NSF Faculty Development Grant (AGS-1429512) to the University of Minnesota. The authors are grateful to Alexandra Lysenko and the Konus-Wind team for making their data available, and to Dale Gary, Gelu Nita, Säm Krucker, and Sophie Musset for insightful comments on the text.
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- Sun: X-rays, gamma rays Supporting material: animation
- Sun: corona
- Sun: flares
- Sun: radio radiation
- acceleration of particles