Capillary columns packed with small diameter particles typically lead to low permeability and long separation times in high-performance liquid chromatography. Ultrahigh pressures (>10 000 p.s.i.; 1 p.s.i. ≡6894.76 Pa) can be used to overcome the limitations that small particles impose. Ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) has demonstrated great potential for high-speed and high-efficiency separations. Decreasing the viscosity of the mobile phase by elevating the temperature could additionally reduce the pressure drop and facilitate the use of longer columns or smaller particles to achieve even higher total plate numbers. For this reason, we investigated the use of elevated temperatures in UHPLC. Water-resistant, flexible heater tape covered with insulation was used to provide the desired heat to the column. Polybutadiene-coated 1 μm nonporous zirconia particles were used because of their chemical stability at elevated temperature. A column efficiency as high as 420 000 plates m-1 was obtained. The effects of temperature and pressure on the separation of parabens were investigated. Separation of five herbicides was completed in 60 s using 26 000 p.s.i. and 90°C.
- Liquid chromatography
- Temperature effects
- Ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography
- Zirconia-polybutadiene stationary phases