Leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein-1 (LRG) is a serum glycoprotein of unknown function that has shown promise based on qualitative assessments as a biomarker for certain diseases including microbial infections and cancer. However, the lack of a quantitative assay for LRG has limited its application. Here an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for quantifying LRG in human serum is described in which cytochrome c is employed as the capturing ligand and a monoclonal antibody specific for LRG is used to detect the captured glycoprotein. Application of this assay in quantifying LRG in various patients' sera is demonstrated. The concentration of LRG in sera of control subjects as determined by this assay is approximately 50 μg/ml. Consistent with expectations from published reports, LRG was found to be significantly elevated in the sera of some patients with a bacterial infection (toxic shock syndrome, TSS). LRG was only slightly elevated in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus as compared to uninfected control subjects, while normal levels of LRG were observed in patients with non-infectious diseases (inflammatory arthritis and neurological disorders, primarily Parkinson's disease). Although LRG and C-reactive protein (CRP) are both produced by the liver and are classified as acute-phase proteins, there was no significant correlation between the levels of LRG and CRP in the sera of the patients. Thus, LRG and CRP measurements are non-redundant and indicate different physiological contexts. The ELISA described in this report should be useful to further assess serum LRG as a biomarker for clinical diagnostics.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was partially funded by grants from the Minnesota Medical Foundation and the University of Minnesota Graduate School to R.J. The authors thank Drs. Ameeta Kelekar and Amy Skubitz for helpful discussions and Dr. LeeAnn Higgins for MS analysis.
- Cytochrome c
- Leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein-1
- Sandwich ELISA
- Toxic shock syndrome