Fungal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with hematologic malignancies and recipients of bone-marrow/hematopoietic stem-cell transplants. Although Candida and Aspergillus species remain the most common fungal pathogens, multiple unusual fungal pathogens are being increasingly recognized as a cause of infection in these patients. Many of these rare fungal infections have a characteristic clinical disease spectrum. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of these infections is the key to a successful outcome. In this article, we summarize the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, and approach to the management of infections caused by Fusarium, Zygomycetes, Scedosporium, Trichosporon, Malassezia, Alternaria, Paecilomyces, and Penicillium.