Emerging nano-formulations and nanomedicines applications for ocular drug delivery

Dawin Khiev, Zeinab A. Mohamed, Riddhi Vichare, Ryan Paulson, Sofia Bhatia, Subhra Mohapatra, Glenn P. Lobo, Mallika Valapala, Nagaraj Kerur, Christopher L. Passaglia, Shyam S. Mohapatra, Manas R. Biswal

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Ocular diseases can deteriorate vision to the point of blindness and thus can have a major impact on the daily life of an individual. Conventional therapies are unable to provide absolute therapy for all ocular diseases due to the several limitations during drug delivery across the blood-retinal barrier, making it a major clinical challenge. With recent developments, the vast number of publications undergird the need for nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems in treating ocular diseases. The tool of nanotechnology provides several essential advantages, including sustained drug release and specific tissue targeting. Additionally, comprehensive in vitro and in vivo studies have suggested a better uptake of nanoparticles across ocular barriers. Nanoparticles can overcome the blood-retinal barrier and consequently increase ocular penetration and improve the bioavailability of the drug. In this review, we aim to summarize the development of organic and inorganic nanoparticles for ophthalmic applications. We highlight the potential nanoformulations in clinical trials as well as the products that have become a commercial reality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number173
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by NIH/NEI award EY027013-02 and USF Taneja College of Pharmacy New Faculty Development award to Manas R. Biswal.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Clinical trials
  • Ophthalmic applications
  • Organic and inorganic nanoparticles


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