Ocular diseases can deteriorate vision to the point of blindness and thus can have a major impact on the daily life of an individual. Conventional therapies are unable to provide absolute therapy for all ocular diseases due to the several limitations during drug delivery across the blood-retinal barrier, making it a major clinical challenge. With recent developments, the vast number of publications undergird the need for nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems in treating ocular diseases. The tool of nanotechnology provides several essential advantages, including sustained drug release and specific tissue targeting. Additionally, comprehensive in vitro and in vivo studies have suggested a better uptake of nanoparticles across ocular barriers. Nanoparticles can overcome the blood-retinal barrier and consequently increase ocular penetration and improve the bioavailability of the drug. In this review, we aim to summarize the development of organic and inorganic nanoparticles for ophthalmic applications. We highlight the potential nanoformulations in clinical trials as well as the products that have become a commercial reality.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by NIH/NEI award EY027013-02 and USF Taneja College of Pharmacy New Faculty Development award to Manas R. Biswal.
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- Clinical trials
- Ophthalmic applications
- Organic and inorganic nanoparticles