1,3,8-Trihydroxy-6-methylanthaquinone (emodin) is recognized as an antiproliferative compound. In the present study, however, we show that emodin has both toxic and survival effects in glioma cells and that the survival effects involve Mdr1a. Emodin inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis of C6 cells in a 12-h treatment, but C6 cells survived a 72-h drug treatment, indicating resistance to emodin. Emodin-induced apoptosis was reduced by inhibition of the expression and activation of apoptosis-associated proteins including p53, Bax, Bcl-2, Fas, and caspase-3. C6 cells could express antioxidant proteins (superoxide dismutase and catalase) to decrease reactive oxygen species-induced cytotoxicity of emodin and overexpress multidrug resistance genes (Mdr1a, MRP2, MRP3, and MRP6) to decrease the intracellular accumulation of emodin. Electrophoretic mobility shift analysis showed that emodin decreased nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) expression in 24 h of treatment, but in 48 h, emodin increased NF-κB activity. A confocal microscope showed that emodin induced NF-κB translocation from cytoplasm to nuclei. C6 cells would activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase survival pathway and express the DNA repair gene (MGMT) and associated proteins (PARP and XRCC1) to recover the cell activity. C6 cells also expressed GRP78 to decrease emodin-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress that would cause apoptosis in C6 cells, and GRP78 inhibited the expression of GADD153 to enhance the expression of Bcl-2 that could balance the ER- and mitochondria-induced apoptosis of C6 cells.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics|
|State||Published - Sep 21 2009|