Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fi ne-needle aspiration for the diagnosis of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis

M. Berzosa, D. T. Tsukayama, S. F. Davies, S. M. Debol, Y. Y. Cen, R. Li, James S Mallery

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21 Scopus citations


SETTING: The incidence of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is surprisingly high among certain subgroups of patients in industrialized countries. Diagnosis is often diffi cult and can require costly invasive workup. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fi ne-needle aspiration (EUSFNA) is a safe, minimally invasive, accurate, out-patient diagnostic modality for assessing mediastinal and abdominal lymphadenopathy and masses. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of EUS-FNA for diagnosing EPTB. DESIGN: Retrospective 6-year review, including all patients who had evidence of lymphadenopathy or mass on computed tomography scan accessible by EUS and consideration of tuberculosis (TB) in the differential diagnosis. RESULTS: Of 81 potential patients, a total of 20 cases with EPTB diagnosed by EUS-FNA were identifi ed. Necrotizing granulomas had a 58% likelihood of TB vs. 14% for other cytologic fi ndings (P < 0.0001); necrosis was also predictive, with a 44% likelihood of TB vs. 19% (P < 0.0225). EUS-FNA cytology was diagnostic for TB when an African-born patient had necrotizing granulomas (P < 0.0001), and was highly suggestive with necrosis alone (P < 0.0514). Non-necrotizing granulomas were not predictive of TB and an alternative diagnosis was more likely, including sarcoidosis and cancer. CONCLUSION: EUS-FNA is a useful diagnostic modality that should be used early in the diagnostic workup of suspected EPTB.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)578-584
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2010


  • Endoscopic ultrasound
  • Extra-pulmonary
  • Fi ne-needle aspiration
  • Granuloma
  • Tuberculosis


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