Graphene oxide (GO) is considered a comparatively recent biomaterial with enormous potential because of its nontoxicity, high dispersity, and enhanced interaction with biomolecules. These characteristics of GO can promote the interactions between the substrates and cell surfaces. In this study, we incorporated GO in a cryogel-based scaffold system to observe their influence on the osteogenic responses of human tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hTMSCs). Compared to polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based cryogel scaffold, GO-embedded PEG-based (PEGDA-GO) cryogels not only showed improved cell attachment and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling activation but also enhanced cell viability. Taken together, we demonstrated that PEGDA-GO cryogels can stimulate osteogenic differentiation under an osteoinductive condition and enhance osteogenic phenotypes compared to the control group. In summary, we demonstrate that GO embedded in cryogels system is an effective biofunctionalizing scaffold to control osteogenic commitment of stem cells.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Financial support for this work was provided from Seoul National University Dental Hospital Research Fund (01-2015-0006) and by the National Research Foundation of Korea (KNRF) grant funded by Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (NRF-2016R1E1A1A01943393). It is also supported by Global Ph.D. Fellowship Program from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2015H1A2A1029321).
- bone tissue engineering
- graphene oxide incorporation
- mesenchymal stem cells
- polyethylene glycol based cryogel