This study investigated the effectiveness of a main idea strategy and self-monitoring instructional procedure for improving comprehension of textual material in students with high-incidence (e.g., learning and behavioral) disabilities. Thirty-three middle school students with disabilities were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Students in the experimental condition were trained to identify and generate main idea statements using main idea strategy instruction and a self-monitoring procedure. Results indicated that the instructional procedures led to increased reading comprehension of students in the experimental group on the training measure, which was maintained over time. On near and far transfer measures, the experimental group statistically outperformed students in the control group on posttest and delayed posttest items requiring selection responses. Students in the experimental group maintained strategy usage 6 weeks later on selection type responses on the near transfer measure but, not on the far transfer measure. Implications for practice are discussed.