Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I), a deficiency in the lysosomal enzyme α-L-iduronidase (IDUA), is characterized by skeletal abnormalities, hepatosplenomegaly and neurological dysfunction. To evaluate the potential for treatment of the disease using a gene delivery approach, recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors were constructed and evaluated for expression of the human IDUA cDNA in transduced cells. 293 cells transduced with these AAV vectors contained IDUA activity at 0.5 to 1.4 μmol/mg·hr, 50- to 140-fold above background (control-transduced) levels. In time course studies of transduced 293 cells, IDUA activity levels peaked 1 week after transduction and persisted at 50% of the peak level for at least 6 weeks. Transduced MPS I fibroblasts also expressed high levels of IDUA activity (114-290 nmol/mg·hr), which persisted for at least 3 weeks in the absence of selection. In addition, transduced MPS I fibroblasts were capable of clearing intracellular radiolabeled glycosaminoglycan (GAG). As a test of the ability of these vectors to mediate metabolic cross-correction, transduced HuH7 human hepatoma cells were demonstrated to release enzyme that was subsequently taken up by nontransduced MPS I fibroblasts. These results illustrate the effectiveness of AAV Vectors for delivery and expression of human IDUA gene sequences and for potential treatment of MPS I.