We study the propagation and diffusion of electric charge fluctuations in high-energy heavy-ion collisions using the Cattaneo form for the dissipative part of the electric current. As opposed to the ordinary diffusion equation this form limits the speed at which charge can propagate. Including the noise term in the current, which arises uniquely from the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, we calculate the balance functions for charged hadrons in a simple 1+1-dimensional Bjorken hydrodynamical model. Limiting the speed of propagation of charge fluctuations increases the height and reduces the width of these balance functions when plotted versus rapidity. We also estimate the numerical value of the associated diffusion time constant from anti–de Sitter-space/conformal-field theory.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the US DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-87ER40328. C.P. acknowledges support from the CLASH Project No. KAW 2017-0036.