Purpose: Iron-oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have shown tremendous utility for enhancing image contrast and delivering targeted therapies. Quantification of IONPs has been demonstrated at low concentrations with gradient echo (GRE) and spin echo (SE), and at high concentrations with echoless sequences such as swept imaging with Fourier transform (SWIFT). This work examines the overlap of IONP quantification with GRE, SE, and SWIFT. Methods: The limit of quantification of GRE, SE, inversion-recovery GRE, and SWIFT sequences was assessed using IONPs at a concentration range of 0.02 to 89.29 mM suspended in 1% agarose. Empirically derived limits of quantification were compared with International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry definitions. Both commercial and experimental IONPs were used. Results: All three IONPs assessed demonstrated an overlap of concentration quantification with GRE, SE, and SWIFT sequences. The largest dynamic range observed was 0.004 to 35.7 mM with Feraheme. Conclusions: The metrics established allow upper and lower quantitative limitations to be estimated given the relaxivity characteristics of the IONP and the concentration range of the material to be assessed. The methods outlined in this paper are applicable to any pulse sequence, IONP formulation, and field strength. Magn Reson Med 79:1420–1428, 2018.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
- T, T, and T* quantitation
- iron oxide nanoparticle