Estimate of minimum measurable voltage in the SEM

A. Gopinath

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The minimum measurable voltage in the SEM is estimated for a voltage contrast linearization scheme with restricted- and unrestricted-aperture analysers, using approximations for the shapes of the energy distribution curves and assuming that the only significant source of noise is on the collected electrons. A similar estimate is also made for Auger electron voltage measurement schemes. A numerical example shows that the hemispherical retarding-potential analyser system (unrestricted aperture) provides the lowest measurable voltage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)911-913
Number of pages3
JournalKey Abstracts - Physical Measurements and Instrumentation
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 1978


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