The minimum measurable voltage in the SEM is estimated for a voltage contrast linearization scheme with restricted- and unrestricted-aperture analysers, using approximations for the shapes of the energy distribution curves and assuming that the only significant source of noise is on the collected electrons. A similar estimate is also made for Auger electron voltage measurement schemes. A numerical example shows that the hemispherical retarding-potential analyser system (unrestricted aperture) provides the lowest measurable voltage.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||3|
|Journal||Key Abstracts - Physical Measurements and Instrumentation|
|State||Published - Jan 1 1978|