Background: The liver is a common site of metastases for various malignancies. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of liver masses has only been reported in small series from single centers. Methods: A retrospective questionnaire was sent by e-mail to 130 EUS-FNA centers around the world regarding indications, complications, and findings of EUS-FNA of the liver. Results: Twenty-one centers reported 167 cases of EUS-FNA of the liver. A complication was reported in 6 (4%) of 167 cases including the following: death in 1 patient with an occluding biliary stent and biliary sepsis, bleeding (1), fever (2), and pain (2). EUS-FNA diagnosed malignancy in 23 of 26 (89%) cases after nondiagnostic fine needle aspiration under transabdominal US guidance. EUS localized an unrecognized primary tumor in 17 of 33 (52%) cases in which CT had demonstrated only liver metastases. EUS image characteristics were not predictive of malignant versus benign lesions. Conclusion: EUS-guided FNA of the liver appears to be a safe procedure with a major complication rate of approximately 1%. EUS-FNA should be considered when a liver lesion is poorly accessible to US-, or CT-guided FNA should be considered when US- or CT-guided FNA fail to make a diagnosis, when a liver lesion(s) is detected (de novo) by EUS, and for investigation of possible upper GI primary tumors in the setting of liver metastases.