Background. Evaluation of surgical competency should include assessment of knowledge, technical skill, and judgment. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE), skill testing, and intraoperative assessment. Methods. Postgraduate year 2 (PGY-2) and postgraduate year 3 (PGY-3) surgery residents (n = 33) were tested by means of (1) the ABSITE, (2) skill testing on a laparoscopic video-trainer, and (3) intra-operative global assessments during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The Pearson correlation was used to determine the correlation between the ABSITE, skill testing, and intraoperative assessments. For the comparison of PGY-2 and PGY-3 resident performance, Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used. Results. The ABSITE scores did not correlate with skill testing or intraoperative assessments (not significant). Skill testing correlated with the intraoperative composite score and with 4 of 8 operative performance criteria (P < .05). The ABSITE scores and skill testing were not different for PGY-2 and PGY-3 residents (not significant). Intraoperative assessments were better in 5 of 8 criteria and the composite score for PGY-3 versus PGY-2 residents (P < .05), which demonstrated construct validity. Conclusions. The ABSITE measures knowledge but does not correlate with technical skill or operative performance. Residency programs should use multiple assessment instruments to evaluate competency. There may be a role for both skill testing and intraoperative assessment in the evaluation of surgical competency.