Fungal endophytes use different strategies to protect host plants from abiotic and biotic stress. In this study, we isolated endophytic fungi from Pistacia vera and characterised their antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and their release of some factors that can alter plant growth capability. Trichoderma harzianum TH 5-1-2, T. harzianum TH 10-2-2 and T. atroviride TA 2-2-1 exhibited the highest growth inhibition percentages in dual culture assays against A. flavus, R. solani and S. sclerotiorum, respectively. Among the fungal endophyte cultures, ethyl acetate extracts of T. harzianum TH 10-2-2, T. harzianum TH 5-1-2 and T. atroviride TA 2-2-1 exhibited the highest growth inhibition of S. sclerotiorum, R. solani and A. flavus, respectively. Phosphate solubilisation was induced by Byssochlamys nivea BN 1-1-1 in culture. Large amounts of siderophore production were observed with Quambalaria cyanescens QC 11-3-2 and Epicoccum nigrum EN1, but Trichoderma spp. also produced siderophore in lower amounts. Trichoderma harzianum TH 5-1-2 produced the highest chitinase activity (2.92 U/mL). In general, among the endophytes isolated, Trichoderma spp. appear to have the most promise for promoting healthy growth of P. vera.
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© 2017, German Mycological Society and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany.
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- Antifungal activity
- Biological control
- Endophytic fungi
- Phosphate solubilisation