Evaluation of (E)-2′-deoxy-2′-(fluoromethylene) cytidine on the 9L rat brain tumor model using MRI

Brian D. Ross, Thomas L. Chenevert, Michael Garwood, Boklye Kim, Lauren D. Stegman, Oded Ben-Yoseph, John Zwolshen, Alnawaz Rehemtulla, Prasad S. Sunkara

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


(E) -2′-deoxy-2′-(fluoromethylene)cytidine (FMdC), was evaluated as a potential treatment for malignant gliomas using the rat 9L brain tumor model. FMdC was shown to be an effective inhibitor of cell proliferation in cultured 9L cells with an EC50 of 40 ng/ml. In vitro studies also revealed that this compound significantly inhibited incorporation of [3H]thymidine in 9L cells. In vivo therapeutic efficacy of FMdC was evaluated in rats harboring intracerebral 9L tumors which were treated daily with 15 mg/kg, i.p. Treatment response was quantified from changes in tumor growth rates as assessed from sequential magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tumor volume measurements. In vivo tumor cell kill in individual animals was calculated by fitting tumor volume data with an iterative computer routine. It was estimated that therapeutically responsive rats treated with FMdC daily produced a ≥ 0.1 log kill per therapeutic dose which resulted in a significant reduction in tumor growth rate. In addition, localized 1H-MRS of intracerebral 9L tumors revealed changes in metabolite levels which correlated with therapeutic response. These results provide evidence supporting the use of FMdC in clinical trials for the treatment of malignant gliomas and reveals that MR can play an important role in the pre-clinical evaluation of novel compounds using orthotopic tumor models.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)67-76
Number of pages10
JournalNMR in biomedicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2003


  • 9L glioma
  • Cell kill
  • Fluoromethylene-2′-deoxycytidine
  • MRI
  • Proton MRS

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