Diabetes mellitus remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 23.6 million people in the United States are affected. Of these individuals, 5-10% have been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (TIDM), an autoimmune disease. Although it often appears in childhood, T1DM may manifest at any age. The effects of T1DM can be devastating, as the disease often leads to significant secondary complications, morbidity, and decreased quality of life. Since the late 1960s, surgical treatment for diabetes mellitus has continued to evolve and has become a viable alternative to chronic insulin administration. In this review, the historical evolution, current status, graft efficacy, benefits, and complications of pancreas transplantation are explored.