Eleven weedy or wild species or subspecies of the genus Secale L. were compared with a set of cultivated rye accessions, based on inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers to analyze their phylogenetic relationships. A total of 846 bands were amplified from reactions using 12 screening primers, including 79 loci with a mean of 10.1 alleles per locus. The number of amplified bands for each primer ranged from 12 to 134, with a mean of 70.5 amplified bands per primer. The presence and distribution of amplified bands in different accessions demonstrate that a rapid evolutionary trend of microsatellite repeats occurred during the speciation process from the perennial wild form to annual cultivated rye. In addition, variation, amplification, and deletion of microsatellites in genomes revealed phylogenetic relationships in the genus Secale. Analysis of the presence, number, and distribution of amplified bands in genomes, as well as the comparison with genetic similarity (GS) indices based on ISSR, indicate that Secale strictum subsp. africanum (Stapf) Hammer, Secale strictum anatolicum (Boiss.) Hammer, Secale sylvestre Host, and Secale strictum subsp. strictum (C. Presl) Hammer emerged in succession from a common ancestor of Secale following geographic separation and genetic differentiation. The annual weedy rye evolved from S. strictum subsp. strictum, which was domesticated as present-day cultivated rye. Data from ISSR analyses separated all investigated accessions of the genus Secale into three distinct groups. These results support the division of the genus Secale into three species: the annual wild species S. sylvestre; the perennial wild species S. strictum, including several differential subspecies forms such as strictum, africanum, and anatolicum; and S. cereale, including cultivated and weedy rye as subspecies forms.
- genetic diversity
- inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR)
- phylogenetic relationship