Pulmonary hypertension associated with left heart disease is the most common form of pulmonary hypertension. Although its pathophysiology remains incompletely understood, it is now well recognized that the presence of pulmonary hypertension is associated with a worse prognosis. Right ventricular failure has independent and additive prognostic value over pulmonary hypertension for adverse outcomes in left heart disease. Recently, several new terminologies have been introduced to better define and characterize the nature and severity of pulmonary hypertension. Several new treatment options including the use of pulmonary arterial hypertension specific therapies are being considered, but there is lack of evidence. Here, we review the recent advances in this field and summarize the diagnostic and therapeutic modalities of use in the management of pulmonary hypertension associated with left heart disease.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Thenappan Thenappan has received honoraria from Medscape and the American Heart Association’s Scientist Development grant. Bhavadharini Ramu declares that she has no conflict of interest.
© 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York.
- Diastolic pulmonary gradient
- Heart failure
- Left heart disease
- Pulmonary arterial compliance
- Pulmonary hypertension
- Right ventricular dysfunction