Eliminating alloreactive cells from T-cell populations would enable the transfer of immune function to patients who receive stem cell transplants. However, high-efficiency depletion has proved difficult to achieve. We sought to develop ex vivo approaches for the maximal depletion of alloreactive CD4 + T cells. Using a flow cytometric cell sorting approach after mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) culture, we have found that sorted CFSE bright (5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinmidyl ester) (nondivided) and activation antigen-negative cells are markedly depleted of alloreactivity. With HLA-mismatched peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) stimulators we have consistently attained (90%-95%) depletion of alloreactivity. Importantly, when purified matured monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) are used as stimulators, a 100-fold (99%) reduction in alloreactivity was attained, resulting in abrogation of the secondary MLR. Significantly, the CFSE bright CD25- cells recovered from these cultures retained general immunoreactivity, including responses to Candida and cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigens. In addition, a CFSE-based approach was tested and found to be sufficient for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prevention in vivo, in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II disparate murine model. This efficient approach to selectively deplete mature alloantigen-specific T cells may permit enhanced immune reconstitution without GVHD.