Patients with heart failure develop various ventilatory abnormalities, including reduced ventilatory reserves, increased ventilatory demands, and high work and cost of breathing. They tend to breathe with a rapid-shallow pattern, have low end-expiratory lung volumes, and may develop rhythmic oscillations in ventilation and tidal volume. These abnormalities likely contribute to exercise limitations and are associated with a worsening prognosis.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews|
|State||Published - Oct 1 2006|
- Periodic breathing
- Pulmonary congestion