We have demonstrated previously that local, adenoviral-mediated gene transfer of viral IL-10 to a single joint of rabbits and mice with experimental arthritis can suppress disease in both the treated and untreated contralateral joints. This contralateral effect is mediated in part by APCs able to traffic from the treated joint to lymph nodes as well as to untreated joints. Moreover, injection of dendritic cells (DC) genetically modified to express IL-4 or Fas ligand was able to reverse established murine arthritis. To examine the ability of exosomes derived from immunosuppressive Dcs to reduce inflammation and autoimmunity, murine models of delayed-type hypersensitivity and collagen-induced arthritis were used. In this study, we demonstrate that periarticular administration of exosomes purified from either bone marrow-derived DCs transduced ex vivo with an adenovirus expressing viral IL-10 or bone marrow-derived DCs treated with recombinant murine IL-10 were able to suppress delayed-type hypersensitivity responses within injected and untreated contralateral joints. In addition, the systemic injection of IL-10-treated DC-derived exosomes was able suppress the onset of murine collagen-induced arthritis as well as reduce severity of established arthritis. Taken together, these data suggest that immature DCs are able to secrete exosomes that are involved in the suppression of inflammatory and autoimmune responses. Thus DC-derived exosomes may. represent a novel, cell-free therapy for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.