## Abstract

We experimentally investigate the two-phase interplay in an open-channel turbulent boundary layer laden with finite-size particles at global volume fractions between 4 and 25 %. The working fluid (water) and the dispersed phase (hydrogel spheres) have closely matched refractive indices, allowing us to measure the properties of both phases using particle image velocimetry and particle tracking velocimetry, respectively. The particles have a diameter of approximately 9 % of the channel depth and are slightly denser than the fluid. The negative buoyancy causes a strong vertical concentration gradient, characterized by discrete and closely spaced particle layers parallel to the wall. Even at the lowest considered volume fractions, the near-wall fluid velocity and velocity gradients are strongly reduced, with large mean shear throughout most of the channel height. This indicates that the local effective viscosity of the suspension is greatly increased due to the friction between particle layers sliding over one another. The particles consistently lag the fluid and leave their footprint on its mean and fluctuating velocity profiles. The turbulent activity is damped near the wall, where the nearly packed particles disrupt and suppress large-scale turbulent fluctuations and redistribute some of the kinetic energy to smaller scales. On the other hand, in the outer region of the flow where the local particle concentration is low, the mean shear produces strong Reynolds stresses, with enhanced sweeps and ejections and frequent swirling events.

Original language | English (US) |
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Pages (from-to) | 598-629 |

Number of pages | 32 |

Journal | Journal of Fluid Mechanics |

Volume | 866 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - May 10 2019 |

## Keywords

- particle/fluid flow
- smultiphase flow
- turbulent boundary layers