We measured real-time exposure to PM2.5, ultrafine PM (particle number) and carbon monoxide (CO) for commuting workers school children, and traffic police, in Jakarta, Indonesia. In total, we measured exposures for 36 individuals covering 93days. Commuters in private cars experienced mean (st dev) exposures of 22 (9.4) ppm CO, 91 (38) μg/m3PM2.5, and 290 (150)×103 particlescm-3. Mean concentrations were higher in public transport than in private cars for PM2.5 (difference in means: 22%) and particle counts (54%), but not CO, likely reflecting in-vehicle particle losses in private cars owing to air-conditioning. However, average commute times were longer for private car commuters than public transport commuters (in our sample, 24% longer: 3.0 vs. 2.3h per day). Commute and traffic-related exposures experienced by Jakarta residents are among the highest in the world, owing to high on-road concentrations and multi-hour commutes.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors gratefully acknowledge assistance from research staff in the Faculty of Public Health — University of Indonesia, including Sri Endah Suwarni, Dadun, Indang Trihandini, Amri Ismail, and 22 student data-collectors. We also gratefully acknowledge Professor Costas Sioutas (University of Southern California) for providing the diffusion driers used in this study. This work was funded by the US Asia Environmental Partnership (USAEP/USAID) Indonesia in collaboration with Swisscontact Indonesia .
- Developing country
- In-vehicle exposure
- Motor vehicle emissions
- Urban air pollution