Semidominant mutations in the PDR1 or PDR3 gene lead to elevated resistance to cycloheximide and oligomycin. PDR1 and PDR3 have been demonstrated to encode zinc cluster transcription factors. Cycloheximide resistance mediated by PDR1 and PDR3 requires the presence of the PDR5 membrane transporter-encoding gene. However, PDR5 is not required for oligomycin resistance. Here, we isolated a gene that is necessary for PDR1- and PDR3-mediated oligomycin resistance. This locus, designated YOR1, causes a dramatic elevation in oligomycin resistance when present in multiple copies. A yor1 strain exhibits oligomycin hypersensitivity relative to an isogenic wild-type strain. In addition, loss of the YOR1 gene blocks the elevation in oligomycin resistance normally conferred by mutant forms of PDR1 or PDR3. The YOR1 gene product is predicted to be a member of the ATP- binding cassette transporter family of membrane proteins. Computer alignment indicates that Yor1p shows striking sequence similarity with multidrug resistance-associated protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ycf1p, and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. Use of a YOR1-lacZ fusion gene indicates that YOR1 expression is responsive to PDR1 and PDR3. While PDR5 expression is strictly dependent on the presence of PDR1 or PDR3, control of YOR1 expression has a significant PDR1/PDR3-independent component. Taken together, these data indicate that YOR1 provides the link between transcriptional regulation by PDR1 and PDR3 and oligomycin resistance of yeast cells.