Gene duplication results in two identical paralogs thatdiverge through mutation, leading to loss or gain of interactions with other biomolecules. Here, we comprehensively characterize such network rewiring for C.elegans transcription factors (TFs) within and across four newly delineated molecular networks. Remarkably, we find that even highly similar TFs often have different interaction degrees and partners. In addition, we find that most TF families have a member that is highly connected in multiple networks. Further, different TF families have opposing correlations between network connectivity and phylogenetic age, suggesting that they are subject to different evolutionary pressures. Finally, TFs that have similar partners in one network generally do not in another, indicating a lack of pressure to retain cross-network similarity. Our multiparameter analyses provide unique insights into the evolutionary dynamics that shaped TF networks.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank members of the Walhout and Myers laboratories, J. Dekker, and N. Springer for discussions and critical reading of the manuscript. This work was supported by National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant GM082971 to A.J.M.W. and D.E.H.; NIH grant DK06429 to A.J.M.W.; CIHR grant MOP-111007 to T.R.H.; fellowships from CIHR and CIFAR to M.T.W.; and C.L.M., C.P., J.N., and P.S.M.R. are partially supported by grants from the NIH (HG005084-01A1, HG005853-01) and the National Science Foundation (DBI 0953881).