Given the high rates of major depressive disorder in primary care settings, routine use of screening measures to assist in identifying depressed individuals is warranted. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) (Radloff, 1977) is a self-rated measure of distress commonly used to screen for depression in primary care settings. The present study was undertaken to confirm the original four-factor model in a sample of low-income women attending primary care clinics (N = 179). Although the original four-factor structure has been replicated in a variety of population groups, internal validity of the measure has not been previously examined in this population sample. A series of confirmatory factor analytic procedures failed to replicate the original four-factor structure or a second-order model. An exploratory analysis, using principal components and a VARIMAX rotation yielded three factors: Depressed Affect/Somatic Symptoms, Positive Affect, and Interpersonal Difficulties. Results of this study add support to previous research documenting an increased somatic presentation of depression in low-income samples. Implications for the use of the CES-D as a screening tool to identify depression in similar primary care samples are discussed.
- Factor analysis
- Primary care